What Is ATP Monomer? 

Ekansh Agarwal

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ATP monomer is one of the significant units because it is related to the DNA. The full form of ATP is Adenosine Triphosphate. Do you know? In our body, signal transduction is heavily dependent on ATP, which can serve as a substance for kinases, the most numerous ATP-binding protein. ATP is an excellent energy storage molecule to use as “currency” due to the phosphate groups that link through phosphodiester bonds. These bonds are high energy because of the associated electronegative charges exerting a repelling force between the phosphate groups. Without extending the introduction, let’s come to the point it is an ATP monomer.  

What Is ATP Monomer? 

ATP monomer is one of the four monomers of DNA and is necessary during the synthesis of RNA. DNA synthesis uses a similar mechanism, except in DNA synthesis, the ATP first becomes transformed by removing an oxygen atom from the sugar to produce deoxyribonucleotide, dATP. ATP is a nucleotide derivative, yet it is chemically structured like DNA and RNA. And as derivatives, it has three parts that mimic its nucleotide counterparts, called DNA and RNA. 

What is the name of the base in ATP? Well, ATP has a nitrogenous base called ‘adenine’, which is connected to a backbone of five-carbon sugar rings called ‘ribose sugar’ to form 

Adenosine’. And it has a phosphate group composed of ‘three phosphates’. 

If you were or are a biology student, then you have probably seen in your old biology books drawn as a lightning bolt or a tiny blast of energy occurring inside a diagram of a cell to show cell processes in action. While it is true that ATP is a source of energy, its illustrative depiction is not to be broken literally, but how it actively plays a role in cellular functions.  

Now, you understand what type of monomer does ATP represent

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Properties Of ATP Monomer 

The properties of ATP monomers are, 

  • ATP is unstable and it is bounded by three phosphate molecules.
  • It is highly soluble in water and quite soluble in solutions between pH 6.8 and 7.4.
  • It is rapidly hydrolyzed at extreme pH levels.
  • ATP is best stored as an anhydrous salt.
  • It is an unstable molecule in unbuffered water, in which it hydrolyses ADP and phosphate.
  • Two phosphate bonds in an ATP molecule are liable for the high energy content of this molecule.
  • The bonds formed after hydrolysis or the phosphorylation of a left-over by ATP, are lower in energy than the phosphoanhydride bonds of ATP.

By knowing the properties of ATP, you got to know about what type of monomer is ATP and ATP energy 

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ATP Structure And Function 

Let’s know the structure and function of ATP.  

ATP Structure 

ATP has three phosphate groups that can be removed by hydrolysis from ADP or AMP. The negative charges on the phosphate group naturally repel each other, requiring energy to bond them together and releasing energy when these bonds are broken. At the heart of ATP is a molecule of adenosine monophosphate or AMP, which is composed of an adenine molecule, a ribose molecule, and a single phosphate group. The addition of a phosphate group to a molecule requires energy. Phosphate groups are negatively charged and thus repel one another when they are arranged in series, as they are in ADP and ATP. 

ATP Function 

There are lots of functions of ATP in our body and they are the transportation of different molecules across the cell membranes. Other functions of ATP include supplying the energy required for muscle contraction, circulation of blood, locomotion, and various body movements. An important role of ATP apart from energy production includes synthesizing the multi-thousand types of macromolecules that the cell requires for their survival. ATP molecule is also used as a switch to control chemical reactions and to send messages. 

Facts About ATP 

  • The link between the three phosphates is where the available energy is contained.
  • ATP uses chemical energy obtained from the breakdown of glucose or other macromolecules.
  • During the hydrolysis process, one phosphate molecule is broken off ATP’s tail to release energy which powers cellular tasks.
  • ATP turns into ADP.
  • ATP is commonly called the “Energy Currency” of the cell because it provides readily released energy in the bond between the second and third phosphate groups.
  • The structure of ATP is a nucleoside triphosphate, consisting of a nitrogenous base called adenine, a ribose sugar, and three serially bonded phosphate groups.
  • The Adenosine triphosphate formula is C10H16N5O13P3.

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What Is ATP A Polymer Of?

Adenosine triphosphate – ATP – is a molecule derived from adenosine phosphate, one of the four subunits of RNA (nucleotides).

What Monomer Is ATP Similar To?


RNA – it is made up of ribose sugar, four nitrogenous bases – (adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil), and one phosphate group. Hence, the structural similarities between the ATP molecule and RNA molecule are due to the presence of ribose sugar, adenine nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group.

Is ATP A Monomer For RNA Production?

ATP As The Cofactor Of Primitive Proteins

This theory proposed a life form in which RNA takes the responsibility of carrying genetic information and catalyzing biochemical reactions. As a basic monomer for RNA polymerization, ATP lays the foundation of the RNA world.

Is ATP A Monomer For Protein Production?

No, adenosine triphosphate is not a protein; it is a nucleic acid. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is made of a chain of nucleotides (monomers) consisting of sugars, phosphate groups, and nitrogen.


Now, you have cleared, is ATP a monomer? All living organisms’ cells use ATP in one way or another. Generally, cells need chemical energy to be released for many vital processes, and this is where ATP gets to shine. All living things including animals, plants, birds, and insects need energy for the proper functioning of cells, tissues, and other organ systems. As we are aware that green plants obtain energy from the sunlight, and animals get their energy by feeding on these plants. Energy acts as a source of fuel. Humans gain energy from the food they eat, but how is the energy produced and stored in their bodies? Well, you have a detailed understanding of ATP monomer

What is ATP composed of

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