You should know about the DNA monomer because DNA is one of the complex organs in your body. The full form of the DNA is Deoxyribonucleic Acid, it is the basis for nearly all life forms on Earth. DNA carries genetic information that determines the development and functioning of every living being. When you see the picture of human evolution, you will see that we are a modified version of our ancestors. Why did this happen? It is because of continuous modification in the DNA structure. In a single human genome, there are 70 nucleotide changes per generation. Let me tell you about the DNA monomer.
What Is DNA Monomer?
The DNA monomer is called Nucleotides. Each monomer of the DNA has different attributes that allow it to link with the corresponding nucleotide and form a long chain or sequence.
While talking about the DNA monomer structure, there are 3 parts of DNA monomer namely, a sugar (Deoxyribose), a base, a phosphate residue, and four nitrogen bases called Adenine (A), Thymine (T) Guanine (G), and Cytosine (C).
Adenine is one of the two purines within the nucleotide bases consisting of two rings, one with six members and the other one with five members. The rings are made of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen.
Guanine is the other purine nucleotide in the DNA, it pairs with cytosine in the DNA structure. Guanine contains oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen.
Thymine is a pyrimidine in shape that attaches to adenine in the DNA structure. It has a pyramid structure with one ring of six members. It consists of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon.
Cytosine is also a pyramid base, it binds to guanine in the DNA structure, it is made up of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen.
Well, you have an idea about what is the monomer of DNA as well as what are the three parts of this monomer.
Properties Of DNA Monomer
The properties of DNA monomer are,
- A variety of atoms within DNA monomer are available to interact with other molecules, especially hydrogen-bond formation.
- The ability of the chemical groups to act as hydrogen-bond acceptors or donors is linked to the propensity of their constituent atoms.
- DNA Monomer is a nitrogen-containing base compound and phosphate group-containing compound.
- Each kind of DNA monomer has a distinctive structure and plays a different role in our cells.
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DNA Structure And Function
Let’s know about the DNA structure and function in detail one after another.
Is DNA a polymer? Yes, DNA is a polymer made of monomers called nucleotides. You need to understand the DNA’s molecular structure so as to understand the biological function of DNA. According to researchers, the DNA is composed of two strands of the polymer wound into a helix.
When you see the diagram of the DNA then you will see a two-stranded helix joined by horizontal lines. It appears twisted, giving it a unique shape referred to as the double helix. Each strand of the two strands is a long sequence of nucleotides. These are the individual units of DNA and they are made of a phosphate molecule, a sugar molecule, and a nitrogen-containing region.
The bases of the two strands of DNA are attached to each other to form a ladder-like structure. Within the ladder, A adheres to T, and G adheres to C to create the ‘rungs’.
DNA is responsible for the transmission of inherent characters from parent to offspring. They are responsible for the synthesis of protein in our bodies. DNA fingerprint is a method used by forensic experts to determine paternity. It is also used to reveal the identification of criminals. It has contributed well to studies about biological evolution and genetics.
DNA polymer controls the production of the other polymer called proteins.
A chromosome consists of smaller segments called genes. Chromosomes are very long structures containing two DNA polymers that are joined together by hydrogen bonds by connecting complementary base pairs.
Facts About DNA
After knowing what monomers combine to make DNA, and the structure of DNA monomer and polymer, let’s know some facts about the DNA.
- If unwound and linked together a single DNA could stretch from the earth to the sun and back, 600 times.
- Out of the 3 billion base pairs in the human genome, only 0.1% are unique to us. This means we are all 99.9% alike.
- Genes make up only about 3% of your DNA.
- A DNA test can expose that you are more Irish than your siblings.
- The Human genome holds 3 billion base pairs of DNA.
- Your DNA could link you to places you had never imagined.
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What Are The Monomers In DNA And RNA?
Nucleotides. DNA and RNA are polymers (in the case of DNA, often very long polymers), and are made up of monomers known as nucleotides. When these monomers combine, the resulting chain is called a polynucleotide (poly- = “many”).
What Are The 4 Monomers?
Monomers are atoms or small molecules that bond together to form more complex structures such as polymers. There are four main types of monomer, including sugars, amino acids, fatty acids, and nucleotides.
Why Is DNA Called A Polymer?
Answer and Explanation: DNA is classified as a polymer as it consists of numerous nucleotide units. Thus the monomer of DNA is a nucleotide of which there are four, and DNA is termed a polynucleotide because of the repeating phosphate-sugar backbone structure of the molecule.
Is DNA A Polymer?
The proteins we eat, and which we’re made of, are polymers made up of amino acids. And even our DNA is a polymer—it’s made of monomers called nucleotides.
What Is The Shape Of DNA?
DNA is made of two linked strands that wind around each other to resemble a twisted ladder — a shape known as a double helix. Each strand has a backbone made of alternating sugar (deoxyribose) and phosphate groups.
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Is RNA A Polymer?
RNA is a linear polymer of nucleotides linked by a ribose-phosphate backbone. Polymerization of nucleotides occurs in a condensation reaction in which phosphodiester bonds are formed.
While going through this article, you have learned about one of the most complex and important parts of our body. Mostly, people got confused about DNA and RNA, because the monomer of DNA and RNA is the same, Nucleoid. The only difference between them is that RNA is single-stranded with ribose while DNA is double-stranded with deoxyribose. We all have DNA which carries genetic information from our parents to us. Therefore, we look somewhat similar to our parents. So, this was all about the DNA monomer.
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