What Are Macromolecules Monomers?  

Ekansh Agarwal

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Do you know? There are several macromolecules monomers. Below, we will learn them in detail. There are mainly four types of macromolecules and they are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acid. Each macromolecule has a different monomer. All of the major macromolecule classes are similar, in that they are large polymers that are assembled from small repeating monomer subunits. Macromolecules are also termed polymers. They are formed by the polymerization of molecules such as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The monomer units of macromolecules are polar, with their heads and tails with different physical and chemical properties. Let’s move toward the macromolecules monomers.  

What Are Macromolecules Monomers? 

Macromolecules monomers are amino acids, nucleotides, glucose and related sugars, and Isoprene. These all monomers and polymer of macromolecules are naturally found. There are mainly four types of monomers, 

Amino acid’s name comes from the presence of an amino group and an acidic carboxyl group in the molecule. Amino acids are the monomers that make up proteins. Amino acids are the monomer units. There are only 20 common amino acids found in these 10,000 proteins. True proteins contain only the elements carbon, hydrogen nitrogen, oxygen, and sulphur. 

Nucleotides are the monomers of DNA and RNA. The monomer units of DNA are formally called deoxynucleotides. Polynucleotides are long polymers, made up of linear arrays of monomers called nucleotides, consisting of nitrogen bases linked to sugar phosphate. 

Glucose and related sugars monomers are linked like beads on a string to form an almost endless chain. Protein polymers are similar, the threadlike aggregate of as many as 20 types of amino acid monomers linked in series. They are much the same, long polymeric strands made up of a regularly alternating sequence of sugar and phosphate monomers with purine or pyrimidine base attached to each sugar and bending outward from the sugar-phosphate backbone. 

Isoprene is the monomer of natural rubber and naturally occurring terpenes and steroids, whereas 1,3-butadiene is a synthetic monomer used in the production of synthetic rubber. 

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Properties Of Macromolecules Monomers 

The properties of macromolecules monomers are, 

  • Amino acids have very high melting and boiling points. 
  • Amino acids are white crystalline solid substances. 
  • Some amino acids are Sweet, some are tasteless, and some are bitter. 
  • Most amino acids are soluble in water and are insoluble in organic solvents. 
  • Nucleotides consist of a nitrogen-containing base, a five-carbon sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. 
  • Cells contain many types of nucleotides, which are in constant flux between free and polymeric states. 
  • Glucose is a sweet, colourless, and odorless substance. 
  • The melting point of glucose is 146 deg C and its density is 1.54 g/cm3. 
  • The molecular weight or molar mass of glucose monomer is 180.16 g/mol. 
  • Glucose is a monosaccharide or a simple sugar and it is the monomer of polysaccharides. 
  • Isoprene is a clear colorless liquid with a petroleum-like odor. 
  • The density of isoprene is 57 lb/gal. 
  • The boiling point of Isoprene is 93 deg F and its flash point is -65 deg F.   

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Macromolecules Structure And Function 

Well, you know about macromolecule monomers examples. Macromolecules structure and functions are given below,  

Macromolecules Structure 

There are four biological macromolecules such as proteins, DNA, Lipids, etc. molecules are attached by shared electron pairs or covalent bonds. Such bonds are directional, meaning that the atoms adopt specific positions relative to one another to maximise the bond strengths.  The structural chemistry of molecules is connected with valence, which defines how atoms combine in definite ratios and how this is related to the bond directions and bond lengths. The properties of molecules correlate with their structure, for instance, the water molecule is bent structurally and therefore has a dipole moment, whereas the carbon dioxide molecule is linear and has no dipole moment. 

Macromolecules Function 

There are various functions of macromolecules.  Macromolecules examples are Proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and lipids. They perform important functions, including providing structural support, being a source of stored fuel, storing and retrieving genetic information, and spending biochemical reactions. 

The function of protein macromolecules is to replicate and transcribe DNA, produce processes, and secrete other proteins. Nucleic acids, deoxyribonucleic acid, and ribonucleic and, carry genetic information which is read in cells to make the RNA and proteins by which living things function. Carbohydrates’ main function is to provide energy to your body. Most of the carbohydrates in the foods you eat are digested and broken down into glucose before entering the bloodstream. 

While the function of lipid macromolecules is to help with moving and storing energy, absorbing vitamins, and making hormones. Having too much lipids is harmful. 

Facts About Macromolecules 

The facts about macromolecules are, 

  •  A lipid is any of various organic compounds that are insoluble in water. 
  • Lipid macromolecules include fats, oils, waxes, hormones, and certain types of other components of the membrane and function as energy-storage molecules and chemical messengers. 
  • The chemical formula of glucose is C6H12O6. 
  • Glucose is found naturally in fruits and honey. 
  • Carbohydrates are one of the main nutrients in our diet. 
  • Carbohydrates help provide energy for our bodies. 
  • Carbohydrates are three main types of carbohydrates found in foods. 

Now, you have 4 types of macromolecules and their monomers. And also has 4 macromolecules and their functions

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What Are The Four Macromolecules Monomers And Functions?

What are the functions of the four organic macromolecules?

  • Proteins – Molecular Machines.
  • Nucleic Acids – Information Repositories.
  • Lipids – Waterproof Membranes.
  • Carbohydrates – Stored Energy.

How Do Macromolecules Form Monomers?

Biological macromolecules generally are polymers, (poly = many; mer = unit), formed by joining monomers, or single molecules, together in a long chain. They are formed by the process of polymerization. In this process, dehydration synthesis, or the removal of a water molecule, joins two monomers together 

Which Macromolecules Are Polymers And Monomers?

As we’ve learned, there are four major classes of biological macromolecules:

  • Proteins (polymers of amino acids)
  • Carbohydrates (polymers of sugars)
  • Lipids (polymers of lipid monomers)
  • Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA; polymers of nucleotides)

What Are Macromolecules Monomeric Units?

Macromolecules are also termed as polymers. They are formed by the polymerisation of molecules such as carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The monomer units of macromolecules are polar in nature, with their heads and tails with different physical and chemical properties.


In this article, you have learned all about macromolecules monomers and polymers. Also, you have understood macromolecules monomers and polymers and functions. There are 4 macromolecules monomers and each of them has different structures, functions, and properties. Macromolecules provide structural support and a source of stored fuel, the ability to store and retrieve genetic information, and the ability to spend biochemical reactions. Now, you have a great understanding of macromolecules monomers.  

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