What Is Nucleic Acid Monomer? 

Before knowing the nucleic acid monomer, you should know about the nucleic acid itself. So, nucleic acids are immense biomolecules of two major types, one is natural, and the second is synthetic. Below we will discuss it in detail. Nucleic acids are molecules that allow organisms to transfer genetic information from one generation to the next generation. How? These molecules store the genetic information that determines traits and makes protein synthesis possible. Without taking further time, let’s get started and know the nucleic acid monomer.   

What Is Nucleic Acid Monomer?

The nucleic acid monomer is called Nucleotide, which is made up of three subunits. The subunits of the monomer of nucleic acid are the Nitrogen base, the phosphate group, and the sugar part. DNA, RNA, and nucleic acid are made up of monomers known as nucleotides. After the combining of these monomers, a chain is formed known as a polynucleotide. Here, poly means ‘many’. 

Each nucleotide is made up of three parts, a nitrogen-containing ring structure called the nitrogenous base, a five-carbon ring sugar, and at least one phosphate group. In the nucleic acid monomer structure, the sugar atom has a central position, with the base attached to one of its carbons and the phosphate group attached to another. 

The nucleic acid monomer function includes containing genetic information and transferring it from one generation to the next. Also, it translates the information encoded in DNA for the production of proteins and helps in their synthesis. To know it in detail, you can refer to a nucleic acid monomer diagram on the internet. 

Now, you have an idea about what is the monomer of nucleic acid and also nucleic acid monomer and polymer. Let’s know the properties, nucleic acid structure, and function.  

Click here – What Is The Nucleotide Monomer?

Properties Of Nucleic Acid Monomer 

The properties of nucleic acid monomer are, 

  • Consist of a nitrogen-containing aromatic base attached to a pentose sugar, which is in turn attached to a phosphate group. 
  • It is a five-carbon sugar 
  • It contains one phosphate group. 
  • It is a large biomolecule that plays a vital role in all cells ad viruses. 

Nucleic Acid Structure And Function 

Let’s know the nucleic acid structure and function one by one in detail. 

Nucleic Acid Structure 

The nucleic acid polymer formula is C10H14N5O6P. Nucleic acid is a polynucleotide, that is a very long chainlike molecule composed of a series of nearly identical building blocks called nucleotides. Each nucleic acid contains four of five possible nitrogen-containing bases namely, Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine, and Uracil. In DNA, Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Thymine are found while in RNA Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Uracil are found. 

Without an attached phosphate group, the sugar attached to one of the bases is known as nucleotides. The phosphate group connects successive sugar residues by bridging the 5’-hydroxyl group on one sugar to the 3’-hydroxyl group of the next sugar in the chain. 

Nucleic Acid Function  

The main and very significant function of nucleic acid is transferring genetic information from one generation to another generation. Also, as storage and expression of genomic information. Nucleic acid is a large biomolecule that plays an essential role in all cells and viruses. 

DNA and RNA are part of the Nucleic acid and they both encode the information cells need to make protein. DNA produces the protein as per the genetic information stored by nucleic acids. And the produced protein carries genetic features from parents to their children. For example, children resemble their parents. The calf looks like a cow or bool. It happens due to nucleic acid that carries and stores genetic information. 

Now, you know about the nucleic acid elements and also more than 3 functions of nucleic acids. Let’s know some facts about nucleic acid. 

Facts About Nucleic Acid 

Here are some facts about nucleic acid monomer, 

  • Nucleic acid is a macromolecule that stores genetic information and enables protein production according to the stored genetic information. 
  • It includes RNA and DNA. These molecules are composed of long strands of nucleotides. 
  • Nucleotides are made up of a nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar, and a phosphate group. 
  • DNA is made up of a phosphate-deoxyribose sugar backbone and the nitrogenous bases Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, and Thymine. 
  • RNA has ribose sugar and nitrogenous bases called Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, and Uracil. 
  • It holds the basic building block for life. 

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What Is Nucleic Acids Monomer And Polymer?

In case of nucleic acids, monomers are the nucleotides composed of nitrogenous base, pentose sugar, and phosphate group whereas DNA and RNA are considered as polymer of nucleic acids. DNA and RNA are composed of monomers termed as nucleotides.

What Are Nucleic Acid Monomers Examples?

All nucleic acids are made up of the same building blocks (monomers). Chemists call the monomers “nucleotides.” The five pieces are uracil, cytosine, thymine, adenine, and guanine. No matter what science class you are in, you will always hear about ATCG when looking at DNA. Uracil is only found in RNA.

What Is Nucleic Acid Explain?

​Nucleic Acids
Nucleic acids are large biomolecules that play essential roles in all cells and viruses. A major function of nucleic acids involves the storage and expression of genomic information. Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, encodes the information cells need to make proteins.

What Are 4 Types Of Nucleic Acids?

The most common types of nucleic acids are: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ribonucleic acid (RNA) messenger RNA (mRNA)

What Are Examples Of Monomers For Nucleic Acids?

All nucleic acids are made up of the same building blocks (monomers). Chemists call the monomers “nucleotides.” The five pieces are uracil, cytosine, thymine, adenine, and guanine. No matter what science class you are in, you will always hear about ATCG when looking at DNA.

Click here – What Is Actin Monomer?

What Are The Functions Of Nucleic Acid Class 12?

Nucleic acids are categorised into two different forms, DNA, i.e., Deoxyribonucleic Acid and RNA, i.e., Ribonucleic Acid. These two function as the storing of genetic code and encoding, decoding, and transferring these genetic codes. RNA also helps in protein synthesis.

Where Are Nucleic Acids?

It is found in all cells and also in some viruses. Nucleic acids have a very diverse set of functions, such as cell creation, the storage and processing of genetic information, protein building, and the generation of energy cells.


In this article, you have learned about what is the monomer unit of a nucleic acid in detail. Also, you know the structure and function of both nucleic acid as well as the nucleic acid’s monomer. Nucleic acid is a very complex yet significant structure in the body. Imagine that nucleic acid does not exist. Offspring will look different than their parents and you can not recognize them. Due to nucleic acid, the traits get transferred from your parents to you, and the transferred traits may be bad or good. Now, you have understood the nucleic acid monomer.  

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