What Is Nucleic Monomer? 

Ekansh Agarwal

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You might have learned about a nucleic monomer, but here we will discuss it in detail. Knowing the monomers of nucleic acid is essential because nucleic acids are essential for all forms of life. It is found in all animal cells. Nucleic acid comes in two natural forms called deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA and ribonucleic acid or RNA. After reading DNA and RNA terms, you might have got an idea about the importance of nucleic acids and their monomers. Nucleic acids are made of biopolymers, which are naturally occurring repeated sets of monomers that then create nucleotides that form nucleic acids. Well, without further delay let’s get started and know a nucleic monomer.  

What Is Nucleic Monomer? 

The nucleic monomer is a nucleotide, which is made up of a nitrogenous base namely adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine, or uracil, a phosphate group, and a 5-carbon sugar compound. Nucleic acids monomer, a Nucleotide is the basic building block of nucleic acids namely DNA and RNA. Nucleotides consist of a sugar molecule and a nitrogenous base attached to a phosphate group. The bases are used in DNA and adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine. In RNA, the base uracil replaces thymine. RNA and DNA molecules are polymers made up of long chains of nucleotides. 

To create nucleic acid polymers or DNA and RNA strand bonds to a polynucleotide that has a similar but anti-parallel structure with bonds called hydrogen bonds. These hydrogen bonds like the pyrimidines and purines in the nitrogen bases together. In a process called complementary base pairing, guinea bonds to cytosine, and adenine bonds to thymine. This increases the energy efficiency of base pairs and they will always appear in this diagram. The functions of the

Nucleo-monomer include holding genetic information and passing it down from generation to generation. In the nucleic acid monomer structure, the sugar atom occupies the central position, the base is attached to one of its carbon atoms, and the phosphate group is attached to the other carbon atom.

Now, you have an idea of, what is the monomer of nucleic acids. You also know the monomer of nucleic acids functions and structure. Let’s know the monomer of nucleic acids properties. 

Also Read : What Is Polypeptide Monomer? 

Properties Of Nucleic Monomer 

The monomer of nucleic acids has various properties that you should know. Here are some properties are given, 

  • Nucleotides consist of a nitrogenous aromatic base attached to a pentose sugar, which in turn is attached to a phosphate group. 
  • It is a five-carbon sugar 
  • It contains one phosphate group. 
  • It is a large biomolecule that plays a vital role in all cells and viruses.     

Also Read : What Is Polymerization Monomers? 

Nucleic Structure And Function 

Let’s understand the nucleic acid structure and function in detail.  

Nucleic Acid Structure 

 Well, you know the monomer of nucleic acid name is a nucleotide and the structure of nucleic acids also depends on the nucleotide. Nucleic acids are long-chain molecules made up of a series of almost identical building blocks called nucleotides. And each nucleotide consists of a nitrogen-containing aromatic base attached to a pentose sugar, which is in turn attached to a phosphate group.   

Nucleic Acid Function 

Each type of nucleic acid carries out a different set of functions in the cells of all living things. Let’s understand the functioning of DNA first, DNA is responsible for storing and coding genetic information in the body. The structure of DNA allows children to inherit genetic information from their parents. As the nucleotides adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine in DNA will only pair in a certain sequence like adenine with thymine, and guanine with cytosine, every time a cell duplicates the strand of DNA can specify the sequence in which the nucleotide should be copied. 

As for the function of RNA, it plays an important role in protein synthesis and regulates the expression of information stored in DNA to make these proteins. This is also how some viruses convey genetic information.

Facts About Nucleic Acid 

Here are some facts about nucleic acid, 

  • Nucleotide is the monomer of nucleic acids.
  • DNA and RNA are the two main and only types of nucleic acids.
  • Nucleic acids have a tendency to carry genetic information from parent to offspring or from one generation to the next.
  • Nucleic acid is the molecule that encodes an organism’s genetic information
  • You resemble or behave like your parents because of nucleic acid.
  • Nucleic acids namely DNA and RNA hold the basic building blocks for life.

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What Are The 3 Monomers Of Nucleic Acids?


Nucleic acids are giant biomolecules made of monomers called nucleotides. Nucleotides have three components: pentose sugar (5-carbon sugar), phosphate group, and nitrogenous base.

What Is An Example Of Nucleic Acid Monomer?

DNA and RNA are composed of monomers termed as nucleotides. The nucleotides combine with each other in order to form a polynucleotide which can be either DNA or RNA. Each nucleotide comprises three components: a nitrogenous base, a pentose (five-carbon) sugar and a phosphate group.

Are All Nucleic Acids Monomers?

All nucleic acids are made up of the same building blocks (monomers). Chemists call the monomers “nucleotides.” The five pieces are uracil, cytosine, thymine, adenine, and guanine.

Why Is Nucleic Acid A Monomer?

Nucleotides are the monomers of nucleic acids. A monomer is a single molecule that is linked together many times to form a polymer. Nucleic acid polymers are formed by many nucleotide molecules linked together. Each individual nucleotide has a sugar group, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.

What Is DNA Monomer And RNA Monomer?

Nucleotides. DNA and RNA are polymers (in the case of DNA, often very long polymers), and are made up of monomers known as nucleotides. When these monomers combine, the resulting chain is called a polynucleotide (poly- = “many”).


By reading this article, you have understood what is the monomer of a nucleic acid and also know the monomer of nucleic acid example which is a nucleotide. Above, you have read that nucleic acids are involved in storing and processing genetic information. But, not all nucleic acids are involved in it. The nucleic acid adenosine triphosphate or ATP, made up of an adenine nitrogen base, a 5-carbon ribose sugar, and three phosphate groups, is involved in generating energy from cellular processes. The bond between the three phosphate groups is a high-energy bond that provides energy to the cell. All living cells use ATP as an energy source, which allows them to perform their functions. Now, you have got all the answers to your question and also the name of a nucleic monomer.  

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