There are several polysaccharide monomers, below we will discuss them in detail. Is polysaccharide a monomer of polymer? Well, a polysaccharide is a polymer. In chemistry, the term “polysaccharide” is derived from ‘poly’ which means multiple, and ‘saccharide’ which means simple sugar. That means polysaccharides contain a chain of simple sugar. There are two main types of polysaccharides and they are homo-polysaccharides and hetero-polysaccharides. Homo-polysaccharides are those made up of one type of monosaccharide units while hetero-polysaccharides are made from two or more types of monosaccharide units. Without further discussion let’s know a polysaccharide monomer.
What Is Polysaccharide Monomer?
Polysaccharide monomers are glucose, fructose, mannose, and galactose. All these polysaccharide monomer units are called simple sugar or monosaccharides. Well, the most common polysaccharide monomers name glucose and fructose. Glucose is a simple sugar and its chemical formula is C6H12O6. Glucose is found in nature and is the most abundant organic compound on earth. We consume a large part of the glucose that our body needs. It is an aldohexose, which means it has six carbon atoms in its molecule. Starch is a polysaccharide made of the monomer glucose.
While fructose is also a simple sugar with the chemical formula of C6H12O6, it is the same as the glucose formula, but it has a different arrangement of carbon atoms. Fructose is mostly found in plants and their fruits, flowers, and root vegetables. It is also abundantly present in honey and corn syrup.
Galactose is also called D-Galactose, which does not occur in nature in the uncombined state. It is released when lactose is hydrolyzed. The galactose needed by the human body for the synthesis of lactose is obtained by the metabolic conversion of D-glucose to D-galactose. It is also an important compound of the glycolipids that occur in the brain and the myelin sheath of nerve cells.
Now, you got what is the monomer of a polysaccharide and also what monomer is a polysaccharide made of. Well, let’s understand the properties of polysaccharide monomer types.
Properties Of Polysaccharide Monomer
The properties of polysaccharide monomers are,
- Glucose can be solid or liquid and it has a melting point of 294.8 Deg F.
- The glucose unit is soluble in water and acetic acid.
- The density of glucose is around 1.54 g/cm3 and its weight is around 180.16 g/mol.
- The chemical formula of glucose is C6H12O6.
- Fructose is a white color powder with a density of 1.69 g.cm3.
- The melting point of fructose is around 103 deg C.
- The molar mass of the fructose compound is 180.16 g/mol, which is the same as the glucose molar mass.
- Fructose is soluble in water.
- Galactose is a simple sugar and it looks like a white powder.
- Galactose is soluble in water with a solubility of 680 g/L.
- The melting point of Galactose is 167 deg C and its weight is around 180.156 g/mol.
- Both fructose and glucose behave as weak acids and form salts with Ca(OH)2.
Polysaccharide Structure And Function
Polysaccharide structure and function are,
Do you know? All polysaccharide polymers are formed by the same basic process where monosaccharides are connected through glycosidic bonds. These glycosidic bonds consist of an oxygen molecule connecting two carbon rings. The bond is formed when a hydroxyl group is lost from the carbon of one molecule, while the hydrogen is lost by the hydroxyl group of another monosaccharide. Because one oxygen and two molecules of hydrogen are removed, the reaction is a dehydration reaction. The structure of molecules being combined determines the structures and properties of the resulting polysaccharide.
Polysaccharides are essential compounds in the human body. Polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen are called storage polysaccharides because they are stored in the liver and muscles to be converted to energy later for body functions. Starch is found in plants whereas glycogen is found in animals. There are other polysaccharides called structural polysaccharides, they are found in the cell walls of plants. Examples of structural polysaccharides are chitin and cellulose.
Facts About Polysaccharide
The facts about polysaccharides are,
- Polysaccharides are made from monosaccharides via glycosidic bonds.
- They contain unique chemical, physical, and biological properties and are the most abundant natural biopolymer.
- Simple sugar is the building block of polysaccharides.
- Glycosidic bonding and monosaccharide building blocks establish the backbone of these polymers and determine the diversity and complexity of the polysaccharides.
Now, you got what is the monomer of a polysaccharide called?
Follow Monomerof to know more about various monomers.
Is Polysaccharide A Monomer Or Polymer?
Polysaccharides are polymers consisting of chains of monosaccharide or disaccharide units joined by glycosidic bonds with different number of C (e.g. six for a hexose such as glucose).
What Are Examples Of Polysaccharides And Their Monomers?
- Monosaccharides– Glucose and galactose are examples of monosaccharides.
- Disaccharides–Sucrose and maltose are examples of disaccharides.
- Polysaccharides– Starch, glycogen, and cellulose are examples of polysaccharides.
What Is A Polysaccharide Composed Of?
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrates composed of long chains of monosaccharide units joined by glycosidic linkages with a general formula of (C6H10O5)n, 40≤n≤3000.
How Many Monomers Are In A Polysaccharide?
As a rule of thumb, polysaccharides contain more than ten monosaccharide units, whereas oligosaccharides contain three to ten monosaccharide units, but the precise cutoff varies somewhat according to the convention.
By reading this article, you got many things about polysaccharides including, types of polysaccharide and their functions, and what is polysaccharide in chemistry. There are multiple examples of polysaccharides like starch, glycogen, and cellulose. Structural polysaccharide examples are cellulose and chitin, which are also hetero-polysaccharide polymers. Polysaccharide polymers are used for energy storage and give easy access to the constituent monosaccharides whereas a polysaccharide used for support is usually a long chain of simple sugars from the fibrous structure. Well, you got that all about a polysaccharide monomer.
I Have Covered All The Following Queries And Topics In The Above Article
What Monomer Is A Polysaccharide Made Of
Starch Is A Polysaccharide Made Of The Monomer
What Is The Monomer Of A Polysaccharide
What Is The Monomer Of A Polysaccharide Called?
Is Polysaccharide A Monomer Or Polymer
Polysaccharide Monomer Units
Polysaccharide Monomer Type
Polysaccharide Monomers Name
Structural Polysaccharides Examples
Types Of Polysaccharides And Their Functions
What Is Polysaccharide In Chemistry
Polysaccharide Definition And Examples